Articles are a kind of word that identifies which noun is being referred. In other words, the articles are a kind of adjectives which modifies the nouns. There are two kinds of article:
Article "the" is used with a specific noun. Often it is used with proper nouns. However, it is not limited to proper noun only. It is also used when there is a reference of a particular noun.
Example: The Taj Mahal is a beautiful monument. I am going to the party. (Here a specific party is being referred.) The dog is barking. (Here a specific dog is being referred.)
The article 'a' is used to modify indirect nouns starting with a consonant sound (a house, a European) and the article 'an' is used to modify indirect nouns starting with a vowel sound (an elephant, an hour, an easy task).
Example: A dog is a good pet. He is an honest man. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
When superlatives are used to refer to the qualities of the noun; article "the" is inserted before the noun. Mukesh Ambani is the richest man in India. Amitabh Bachchan is the greatest actor in Bollywood.
When the speaker and the listener both are clear about the referred noun, then article "the" is used. Example: Give me the hammer. Do you want to go to birthday the party?
When the noun is previously introduced in the context and being mentioned for the second time, an article "the" is used. She has a dog; the dog is brown. He has a son; the son is 5 years old.
When there is a discussion about an entire segment of society with similar attributes, article "the" proceeded before the noun. The younger generation is the future of the nation. The old need care.
While discussion about the profession of someone, article "a/am" is inserted before the name of the profession. He is a lawyer. She is a web developer.
Example: God is great. Everyone wants to have peace of mind.
Example: I studied French in graduation. India is a democratic country.
Example: I like to play cricket. She loves skipping.
Example: I like chemistry. She was always good at math.